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Human Anatomy


Anatomy is the scientific study of the relationship and the body structure of the living organism. Therefore, human anatomy is the scientific study of human body parts and their integration for effective functioning of the body. Human anatomy forms the basics in determining effective human medication. There are two main categories of human anatomy: macroscopic; study of human body parts which are visible with naked eye, and microscopic; study of human body parts which can only be viewed with the help of microscope. The two categories of human anatomy are very vital in histology; tissue study and cytology; cells study.

Endocrine System

The endocrine system foundations include glands and hormones. The main Human endocrine glands include; pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, adrenals, reproductive, pineal body and the pancreas glands. Endocrine glands produce hormones which trigger the functioning of the body parts. However, these glands do not have ducts and therefore, their secretions are transported in bloodstreams. Endocrine glands are under control of the metabolic activities of the body. The endocrine has got three main factions such as regulate chemical reaction rates in distinct cells, control body metabolic functions and trigger the movement of substances across the cell membrane.

Once hormone is secreted in the endocrine glands, it is transported to the target cells through the bloodstream. In the bloodstream, the hormones combine with the special proteins which acts as carriers and as well control the amount of hormones in the bloodstream. The receptors on the target cells only latch onto certain hormones. Therefore, every hormone can only communicate to certain target cells which have receptors for that specific hormone. On reaching the target cells, the hormones lock themselves onto the receptors of the cells and hence transmit chemical instruction to the cells of the body part.

Endocrine System Malfunction

There are several things which can lead to malfunction in the endocrine system. For instance, insufficiency of adrenal can result to body weakness, abdominal pain, fatigue, dehydration and change in skin color. Furthermore, when the pancreas glands fail to secrete sufficient insulin, diabetes insipidus or diabetes mellitus may occur as a result.

Grow hormone problems is another common endocrine system malfunction. This malfunction results due to excessive growth of bones and bodies parts especially in young people. Growth hormone problem is usually as a result of pituitary tumor. However, this condition is not common and in case it occurs can be treated by eradicating the tumor. Other endocrine related malfunctions include hypothyroidism, Cushing syndrome and hyperthyroidism. Endocrine hormones secreted by the endocrine glands influence almost all functional parts of the human body.

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